Analysis by numbers

Is there a way of quantifying how many marks a piece of analysis should earn?          What is the optimum number of words for a good piece of analysis?                                  Can we use our answers to either of the above questions to help boost the metacognition process with students?                                                                                                                 Finally, and most importantly, can we achieve consistency in our analysis approach across 12 teachers, improving the coherence of hundreds of students’ daily experience?

Despite my English leaning, I love numbers. I like data and statistics (both football and work related!), give students marks/10 for effort sometimes, and enjoy trying to quantify things not normally quantifiable like the wonderfully rich, academic discipline of analysis.

Let me share my disclaimer at the start: none of the following is set in stone. My figures are subject to many other subtleties that teachers and examiners will have to juggle, but I do think some of the aspects below could be useful for teaching purposes. Humour me!

In our first Faculty meeting of the year, it seemed like an opportune time to come together to refocus on our bread and butter: analysis, and as a team, we looked together at some of our analysis principles and how they work, with a curve ball thrown in -namely, my use of numbers.

We started by reminding ourselves of the fantastic system we established last year called the ‘CAS’ -Concise Analysis System, basically a far more useful advancement on PEA. See below:

Screen Shot 2018-09-17 at 10.13.16 PM

A question for you now:

How does the writer present education in the line ‘School is a prison‘ ?

I set the team the task of writing 30 words of analysis on and including the quote above. We then allocated 1 mark for each of the 8 components of the CAS system we used. We reminded ourselves that our ‘red 3’ (Qn link/Quote/explanation of meaning&effect) were the foundation and without them, any analysis was effectively useless. 5/8 seemed to be a typical score from teachers within the space of 2.5 minutes that I set them and that this would therefore become the target for our students.

Why not have a go with your students?

We recognised that 8/8 was simply not consistently sustainable, as it would lead to 60 words+ and straying over the 2-3 minute recommended timeframe. Therefore our ‘green’ aspects like overview, zooming in, terminology, linking in a related quote, needed to be hit with some quotes, but not all. This was an important learning point to clarify. If students think that by covering all our 8 principles every time they consider a quote, it will equate to top level success, as many often do, they are in for a real shock, as a sufficient quantity of quotes is unlikely to be covered as a result, and their marks will invariably tumble.

The magical analysis figure? 30-40!

Why 30-40 words? Well, you’ve got enough words capacity there to get a technique in, reference to the writer’s intentions, quote, link to the question, and consider the meaning/effect of the quote content itself, potentially even offering more than one interpretation.  Also, for top marks, most of our Eduqas Language and Literature exams require us to aim for 7-8 quotes in 15 mins (Fiction Reading Paper -Qns 3,4,5 / Non-Fiction Reading Paper -Qns 2,4) or 7-8 quotes in 20 mins (Literature Paper 1 -Romeo and Juliet extract, Anthology Single poem, Unseen single poem). No more than 30-40 words for each quote should keep students on track for this.

Here are two Literature examples of succinct 30-40 word analysis that hit at least 4 of our CAS system each time:

In the line ‘Rebellious subjects, enemies to peace’ Shakespeare’s use of the adjective ‘rebellious’ emphasises how the Prince feels they are challenging the law that he has laid down, and they are almost out of control.

Shakespeare’s use of the rhetorical question in the Prince’s line ‘Will they not hear?’ indicates to the audience that he is losing patience, and is determined to take steps to ensure they will be unable to ignore his warnings again.

Here’s one from Language Paper 1 – Qn 4- Tension/Drama:

The writer creates tension through the description of the ridge in the line–‘dropped steeply on either side’. The adverb ‘steeply’ highlights a possible danger as the sheer drop indicates one step in the wrong place may be fatal.

Making the drive for succinctness explicit

Our next challenge was to reduce the number of words in a piece of analysis to 30, something that works really well with students. (No adding in words, just removing words allowed!) This has been a powerful learning experience in my classes before as we discuss what and why things are superfluous, and on the flip side, where exactly the ticks are likely to come from the marker (after ‘angry’ and ‘animals’ if you’re wondering!)

The audience could become almost fearful and worried in their seats and they have questions in their mind as the Prince becomes angry when the writer, Shakespeare uses the line ‘you beasts!’. This is a metaphor because people cannot be beasts of course. It is also a short sentence which makes it impactful and stops the audience in their tracks making them want to think more. The metaphor indicates that the Prince sees the fighting families as no better than animals, and that he views conflict in this powerful way.

Can we ever award a numerical mark for how a student deals with a particular quote?

From my experience of teaching the Eduqas spec. so far, and looking at recalled exam papers, we can, and are likely to be accurate. It’s my belief that a piece of analysis where the quote’s content is dealt with sharply earns a tick and invariably a mark. A piece of analysis that offers something extra: referencing/exploring a technique, offering overview, offering an alternative reading – is probably worth roughly 1.5 marks.

Therefore 8 quotes where the content is sharply analysed = 8 marks/10.                                               6 quotes with sharp analysis + something extra = 8 or even 9 marks /10

Most importantly for our verbose top students -3 quotes dealt with beautifully, even with the ‘Wow factor’ will struggle to scrape to 5/10. We need to warn them explicitly about this.

Have a look at the examples below. Which of the 5 analysis examples would you give 1 mark or 1.5 marks to?

Screen Shot 2018-09-17 at 9.09.20 PM

I have used this exercise as a really powerful peer assessment activity in class, crucially ensuring they are able to justify why they have awarded 0, 1 or 1.5 marks each time. Writing poor models is something we so often forget to do as teachers, but I sometimes feel the learning experiences are even richer than with the good models, as we are trying to explicitly point out the lack of reward for certain analysis foibles, and pull students out of ingrained bad habits.

So to conclude, we’re not Mathematicians, but sometimes grappling with the numbers we’re facing, particularly with the Eduqas exams where quantity, in my opinion, seems almost as highly regarded as quality, may help successfully refine your students’ analysis approach.

Hope it can be of help!


Narrative Writing Top Tips – Summer 2018

Hand holding a pen over paper.

I thought I’d share a brief overview of my personal top tips from marking many stories over the last year.

To prepare or not to pre-prepare

So, narratives – I blogged about my belief in the wisdom of students preparing plans/stories beforehand here last year, and it has been clear from my experience this time round that there is a far improved array of structures being employed by students, so good work everyone!

If you’re still sceptical, my advice would be not to worry too much about the danger of tweaking; I would simply encourage students to practice writing convincing tweaks from a host of possible question titles, and you’ll be fine.

Major areas where students can improve

  1. Tense control

My major tip here is to simply not let students write in present tense. I know it is en vogue at the moment in Literature, but it is only the most amazing student writers that can maintain control of the present tense throughout their story. Most mess up after a couple of paragraphs – we then have ‘tense inconsistency’ and the Vocab/SPAG side has quite a few marks knocked off.

2. Editing

We all tell students to check for errors at the end of their writing. Few do by the look of it.   This is so critical for marks as if it is riddled with errors, marks are knocked off for coherence in the Content section of the mark scheme, AND for sentence control/punctuation in the Vocab/SPAG section.

I am going to set specific editing starter activities next year  where students look for errors in both tense, word omissions, and punctuation. Where punctuation errors are not spotted due to a lack of understanding, then a discussion is obviously needed.


Things to encourage

Speaking to the reader (Asides) – e.g. She was the irritating, know-it-all (You know the type, right?)

When done well (and no doubt better than my example above!) it offers a sophisticated, knowing, self-aware, self-deprecating style which is really endearing.

Humour / Embarrassment

Stories are great that involve embarrassment, often as a potential love interest falls by the wayside as a result of said embarrassing actions of the protagonist.

Things to avoid

Fancy punctuation. Forget over-promotion of semi-colons and colons as top marks guarantors. If there is control over speech punctuation and complex sentences, then students should be well on for the top band ‘a range of punctuation is used confidently’.

Any stories involving the following that leads to excess action focus, and insufficient craft: Sporting events, exam results day, War (SO DULL!), Basements, Dark alley ways or woods. For further tips beyond this blog on Do’s/Don’ts -see Component 1 Section B-Creative Prose overview document-DHG and also check out a colleague of mine’s Narrative tips too -there’s some great interactive resources – here

Structuring story writing with lower attainers through providing a range of basic story plots that just ‘work’!

This has proved incredibly useful with my lower set students. In recent years, I have discussed the plot structure -Hook/Exposition/etc and then basically said -off you go. I then had to go through countless revisions to the planning before we even had a workable plot to begin drafting. NOT ANY MORE! This year, I provided students with a lesson to consider their own ideas as normal. 2/20 came up with ones that were goers; the rest didn’t, so next lesson I provided them with a list of 13 plot structures for them to choose from with the brief ‘to make it their own’.

This was a revelation.

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They instantly became more engaged with the ideas and actually offered some lols at a few of my ideas, some of which I invented, some of which I have adapted from students’ stories over the years.

I also told them all that they would all be writing in 1st person. Again, my experience is that this enables better descriptions of feelings and emotions.

Next step was crafting each section. I talked through a model of different narrative hooks/problems then asked them to write it. Holding them back from ploughing on was torturous for some. One student literally had written the entire story in a paragraph. Making explicit that we would literally only be working on one section at a time -a few sentences, and they were not allowed to go further, was a battle…but it worked!

We then moved on to the different sections, and I made clear to them that we were all going to be looking at the model, crafting, crossing out, redrafting each section in turn for a couple of lessons at a time, and that they were all going to be producing an excellent story that they could learn and then deliver in the exam. Here’s the document I’ve been using with guidelines, complete with extra challenges like the sentence I’m about to awkwardly christen as a ‘triplet-positive-positive-negative-cliff-hanger’.

e.g. He would always come first on Sports day; he’d always come first in Spelling Bee competitions; but something that had proved beyond him thus far was girls. 

Narrative Plot Ideas 2018

Alas, we have had to break for summer before they hit the Dramatic Peak section(!) but all the signs are promising for finishing them on our return.

Hope this has been some use. Happy holidays everyone!

Exhibition of Progress Evening

Which students have made phenomenal progress this year for you? How have they done it? How can we share their work?

These were questions that I had in mind in my early planning for my ‘Exhibition of Progress’ event at my school. Inspired by the great man, Ron Berger and his wonderful book ‘An Ethic of Excellence’, I set about creating something similar on a small scale. However, whilst Ron seemed more about exemplifying the absolute top level work, I was keen to celebrate simply ‘significant progress’. That might have been from a Level 3 to a Level 5 in a piece of work; it might have been major improvement in a sporting skill, or simply a substantial positive change in a student’s attitude and workrate over time.


How were the students selected? I simply asked all staff to nominate any students that stood out as making ‘significant progress’ in their subject. I got about 30 names across all Faculties which was a good starting point – but I’d like to increase that number next year!

Next, I got these students off timetable for a morning to really try and drill down on what they thought their reasons were for being nominated. Worryingly, many didn’t really know at first(!), which made me consider hard whether as teachers, we need to much more frequently make explicit to students the steps they have taken that have led to achievement. We are quick to return to targets, but celebrating those specific steps to success too would definitely help to build motivation as well as understanding.

I tried to get them to consider what they were like ‘before’, the things that had made a difference to achievement/attitude, and the ‘after’ -with the start and end point often being exemplified with comparative pieces of work.


I also got a specific quote from each teacher about their progress which was lovely – Here’s one: ‘Consistent effort and focus in English. She listens carefully… and her ability to take on advice has led to her going up 4 grades and is the result of a motivated mindset. Her resilience is inspiring.’  

Well done to Becky in my team for inspiring this young lady!

I also set them a questionnaire to rate different things that contributed to their progress.

What did we learn?

Some fascinating stuff:

  1. Managing to break out of one’s comfort zone has a huge impact

‘If I contribute more, it boosts my confidence and helps me to understand.’

‘I wasn’t afraid to try new things’

*We were pleased with this one as it directly links to our core school value of determination!

2. Self-discipline is a major driver

‘I started to ignore distractions’  , ‘ I started concentrating more’

3. The power of metacognition

‘I started taking on advice’ , ‘I started thinking about how to get better grades’

‘I know what to do to get to the next level’, ‘Before tests, I look back at my targets’

Survey results of which factors rated most highly in the progress journey

  1. Effort in classwork
  2. Personal determination to get better
  3. Positive relationship with teacher
  4. Effort in homework
  5. Personal understanding of the work/how to improve
  6. Enjoying the subject


What was the overall impact on the students as learners, as a result of their new approach?

‘I see the bigger picture’

‘I make people around me happy and energised’

‘I’m improving because I enjoy it’

I think the final quote can, importantly, be reversed too. It’s interesting that the majority of students enjoy the subject where their progress is substantial, but fail to recognise enjoyment comes often as a result of hard work and success first. (Can they apply this learning to other subjects I wonder?!)

Hard work/Challenge —Success— Confidence— Enjoyment

I talk more about this element in an earlier motivation blog here

The event itself was a really fantastic experience for all concerned. I displayed all the students’ posters around the room and invited parents of all the students along. Students were asked to explain to any visitors to their ‘stand’ what the contributing factors to their success were (basically talking through their posters). I encouraged parents to go round and not only listen to their own son/daughter’s progress ‘story’ but other students too.


What was really moving for me was to see several students who are no ‘angel’ shall we say, and not normally commended for their work, suddenly brimming with pride as they explained how they had turned the corner in a subject, and were now enjoying the buzz of feeling like a success.

Next steps

I want to share some of these students’ progress journeys with staff, and look at ways of honing in on the ‘secrets to success’ within our teaching, and perhaps in our efforts to engage with those under-performing in our subjects.

I gave all students a ‘Learning Ambassador’ certificate which acknowledged not only their progress, but also their work in understanding the steps that took them there. My plan is to seek to pair these ambassadors up in the future with students who are ‘passive’ or ‘disengaged’ in their learning in the same subject, and look at perhaps peer mentoring them towards a change in direction, and an improvement in attitude and achievement.


Thanks for reading.



Cultural Capital – Football, Forbidden Fruit, and evaluating what’s behind the spark…

Cultural Capital

It seems to be the new buzz phrase in education, and is normally bandied around as a strategy to develop pupil premium students’ aspirations, but what does it really mean? Is it a case of the dominant middle class imposing their world on the supposedly hapless working class, and what should be the underlying drivers behind any whole school approach?


Pierre Bourdieu, a French Social theorist (1930-2002) coined the term after his uneducated father encouraged him to pursue the best educational opportunities available, and as a result Pierre progressed substantially in life, becoming a renowned philosopher.

Here’s an overview of the theory:

Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital refers to the collection of symbolic elements such as skills, tastes, posture, clothing, mannerisms, material belongings, credentials, etc. that one acquires through being part of a particular social class. Like Marx, Bourdieu argued that capital formed the foundation of social life and dictated one’s position within the social order. Bourdieu also points out that cultural capital is a major source of social inequality. Certain forms of cultural capital are valued over others, and can help or hinder one’s social mobility just as much as income or wealth.

From -Routledge –Taylor&Francis Group –Social Theory Rewired.

A recent conversation with my Year 13s though made me pause and reflect on what my own perception of the phrase was. I had been implicitly ‘valuing some things over others’ , bemoaning the fact that students seem to no longer have many cultural reference points – biblical references like ‘forbidden fruit’ are going over children’s heads, many cannot name more than a couple of Shakespeare characters, and few have no understanding of the geographical term ‘The Middle East’ or its current relevance. I took this further, started blaming reality TV, the anti-intellectual society we live in and said it was saddening that your average person walking down the high street would know little of Charlotte Bronte or the impact of Malcolm X. Some things have vitally, stood the test of time (Shakespeare) and surely should be worth ‘knowing’ more than others?

My Yr 13s saw it very differently, as did my degree educated ‘middle class’ non-teaching friends. They attacked this as middle class elitism and questioned why it was saddening.

They made the following points:

  • Culture changes – Who is to say knowing about Call of Duty or how a car works is not of more worth in society to a particular person than knowing about the reign of Queen Mary, or the philosophical debates in Shakespeare’s Hamlet?
  • There’s always been a working and under-class that have a scepticism/lack of regard for more ‘worthy’ interests (The theatre/Classical music/News debates) due to it being alien to their upbringing and their world. What are they gaining from classical music when all their friends listen to rap?
  • People are actually more culturally rich than ever due to the increasing numbers of people staying in education to 18. This was not the case 100 years ago and earlier.
  • Exam boards are to blame for narrowing cultural capital by denying an outlet for curiosity where it arises, e.g. dictating stuff to be taught – and not offering enough angles for independent investigation – e.g. the war in Syria.

These were intriguing points that made me ponder…

Deep down, I recognized there was possibly an unintended touch of Gove-esque elitism in my perspective (I’m passionate about this wonderful stuff –surely it would benefit people too?), but I know my underlying drive to promote these things as a teacher lay in nurturing something else. Something I hadn’t yet put my finger on.

That ‘something else’ that I wanted to promote as a leader of a core Faculty and as a person who believes hugely in the power of social mobility, I decided, was three things:

  1. Breadth of life experience

Charles Dickens, John Keats, Mozart, Beethoven, Mary, Queen of Scots – Learning about these people is perceived to be of higher cultural worth. But why? Because they’ve stood the test of time? So has gardening, so has football.

Football is part of many people’s culture and is deeply embedded in my own. Some of my most memorable life experiences have been when watching football, yet this is looked down on by many people. Numerous people with supposed ‘cultural capital’ have no awareness of football culture – Maradona, Messi, the offside rule, etc, or the beauty of the game beyond the stereotype.

NU Football vs Brigham Young University (BYU)

Is this of less cultural worth? I would argue it is, if it represents the extent of their interests. But equally, if Dickens was what a person devoted their entire life to, with little or no other interests, then this would of course be a waste too. One isn’t necessarily superior, but it is less likely some students will experience Charles Dickens’ writing in their home life, which is one of the main reasons we share it at school.

As teachers, we have to try and promote experiences which are different, outside of some students’ normal experience, so I think my reasoning for this comes down to a desire for breadth – something we are aware certain children will not receive at home.

But, crucially, we need to ensure we are taking an interest in their current interests and asking questions of them. We need to model that a breadth of interests is most important in getting the best out of life! There’s nothing more depressing than the student that says they have no hobbies.

Breadth, not necessarily hierarchy.

  1. The process of igniting the spark

By providing a school food club that shows how cooking can be an art form, and something from which a living can be made, rather than a microwave means to an end, we are making young people curious, open-minded, aware of the need to learn more about something –what it feels like to see something new for the first time.

And it is this process that is important, not the activity in itself.

Here is where anti-intellectualism can be challenged – If we can provide a pursuit likely to be outside their family and friends’ experience, likely to be mocked as something snooty – that they find they actually enjoy (Chess, The Violin, Debating) then this is incredibly powerful in shifting their thinking. Maybe their immediate world’s walls have shifted outwards. With a spark kindled and new found knowledge and understanding growing, maybe they might be more likely to defend one of these pursuits from mockery in the future?

Can we move against Sugarman’s concept of Immediate Gratification Theory here too? (Something self explanatory associated more readily with the working class) I think this is a worthy aim –to try and encourage young people that there are life journeys to embark upon that will take an investment of their time and effort. University might be; it might not be that journey, but the need to apply themselves to a pursuit for the long haul is very much worth promoting. As an English teacher, I make this explicit to students of all social classes readily – the reading experience is one that does not yield instant gratification, but like many things in life, the greater rewards are a just a little bit further down the line and worth waiting for.

  1. The spark itself and a life long passion for something

When we take students to the theatre for the first time in their life perhaps, to see Shakespeare, learning about the content of that play is beneficial, sure, but what is more important is the fact a student might see the artistry, the mirror to real life, the buzz of the laughs and applause, and think this strange new world could be for them in some form or other.

When we encourage students to read non-fiction articles in English about foreign cultures, about different traditions and ways of life, our aim is to build knowledge (that foundation base to access the world, to be able to engage in many conversations) but primarily to present material that just might nurture a fascination with something that may last a lifetime, and what a wonderful thing that can be, right?

So what can we do as leaders, as teachers?

  1. Breadth without snobbery – offer Shakespeare and Dickens and challenging texts of course, but talk to them about their books too, talk about football, climbing and computer games and model the openness to the new, and the breadth of experience that we seek out for our own lives.
  2. Find out about the gaps and create experiences/school trips to fill these. I live in Bristol, and was shocked to hear recently that it was likely many students in some schools had never seen Brunel’s Suspension Bridge. We must organise trips to fill these gaps where they arise for the majority.
  3. Working with parents is absolutely vital for building cultural capital. Ensure they know how they can help. Challenging the norms at home and attitudes like ‘I was no good at Science… etc’ is key. Why not point them in the specific direction of a website where they can become more knowledgeable and help their son/daughter to achieve? That’s something every parent wants!
  4. Using ambitious vocabulary (and remembering to define it for them, otherwise it can be lost in my view) rather than dumbing down language in classrooms. Model, encourage, explain, celebrate it!
  5. Making every student offer a viewpoint every lesson gives them the impression their voice counts.
  6. Referring to news on a weekly basis in tutor time to show there’s a crazy but exciting world out there for them just waiting to be explored.


Thanks for reading.

For many students, our status quo is killing their aspiration

What do you accept from students in your classroom?

I’ve been reflecting on this a lot lately and have come to the conclusion that, collectively, if we are not reflecting regularly on our own classroom status quo, and occasionally shift it, then students’ aspirations may slowly diminish, and their attainment will suffer.

You might think this is just a post about high expectations, but it’s not; it’s more than that. What we accept covers not only our expectations of students, but our entire pedagogical approach to lesson planning, delivery, questioning, feedback, the lot.

Tom Sherrington’s brilliant  abseiling anecdote about the instructor who accepts the learners’ thumbs up, and then lets them jump over the cliff without checking they have successfully secured their harnesses is slightly hyperbolic for the classroom, but has resonated for me in terms of the profound consequences of what we accept on a daily basis.

Here are a few examples –

  1. You’ve asked a question to your most apathetic group. Finally, a partial answer from a student comes in. How often do you accept it, breathe a sigh of relief and move on, conscious of time, full of gratitude? Could you probe that student’s answer next time via further questioning until it mentally hurts, or bounce the response around the room until a wider understanding is elicited?
  2. Using Hands up questioning. The message you are giving to the majority is 7 or 8 students will do most of the work each lesson, and the rest barely have to bother to think. Aspirations subsequently fall. It’s so much easier to accept that sometimes that’s the way to roll the lesson along – with the positive reinforcement of the keen few. Could you try a week with a No Hands Up rule?
  3. The classic ‘Are we all ok with this? Is this making sense?’ when our tone is virtually rhetorical/please don’t ask me as I need to move on with this. How often do we accept that their silence or a few nods is a signal to proceed, or worse, that bless him, little Jimmy in the corner he’s just not going to get it in a month of SundaysCould you take time to make them explain what you’ve been going on about to each other, then down on paper, then back to you. Check for proof regularly even if it yields desperately uncomfortable truths, even if it screws with your lesson / medium term plan. 
  4. The kid who’s always in on time, nervous, quiet, always tries hard, but never impresses enough in his work to get rewards. Do you take his/her engagement for granted, accepting their attitude as the norm for kids in your well managed classes, and reassure yourself that you gave 200 rewards out last term, albeit to the high flyers? Or could you take 5 minutes this week to phone home to praise that nervous student to their parents, to the two people who instilled in him/her that smile / politeness, and a responsible work ethic over hundreds of evenings?
  5. The formative target written on ten assessments- ‘Use more ambitious vocabulary‘. We accept that they need to reach further into their brains for better words, and ultimately it’s not our fault if they don’t read extensively. Could you take time to show them/the class 5 new words for the next 5 lessons and insist they are weaved into the improvement work that they are going to do for homework? 
  6. The vague self-assessment activity – I understand / I partially understand / I don’t understand – or (sorry -I’m not a fan), the traffic light or thumbs up/down/ exit plenary. You’ve accepted from the 20 thumbs up/greens that the lesson has been a success and that they’ve learned what you intended, when in reality, they just wanted to get to break to see their mate waving at them through the classroom door, and feared a thumbs down would lead to Miss being upset, friends thinking they were thick, or even worse – an extra explanation, holding up break time. Could you make them show you at the start of next lesson what they can recall or make them do a task that explicitly demonstrates their understanding to you of your last lesson’s success or otherwise? 
  7. You accept that your Head of Faculty expects you to get to the end of the module before half term, and there simply isn’t the opportunity for students to spend any more than 10 minutes responding with yes/no to your carefully considered feedback questions. Could you secretly knock a couple of less important lessons out of the scheme of learning, and make the students spend two whole lessons improving, refining and improving further based on the feedback, before reflecting and labelling up all the process steps taken for homework. Imagine a ratio of 1:16 where a teacher’s 10 minutes of feedback is engaged with for 2 lessons of 60 mins and 40 minutes homework. Why not? The Head of Faculty will never know!
  8. The high achievers in Year 9 who could sit an A-level exam tomorrow, you accept are challenged by the lesson’s diary entry/poster mash up activity, and that it’ll be ok, as they’ll do it in a subversive way, and originality is one of the top criteria for a Level 9. Could you next week set 2 starter tasks that are so challenging that half the class will flounder, but some of those high attainers will remember the incredible rush of solving an intensely difficult problem? 
  9. The student who often forgets his/her pen, but you’ve already given them a sanction for the previous lesson, and don’t want to now ruin the good relationship you’ve built up with them, plus it’s more admin work after the lesson to write it up… You accept they’re just a disorganised sort, and comfort yourself you’re a kind, caring teacher as you throw them a pen and they give you a nod – you’re cool. Could you spare 2 mins at the end of the lesson next time to challenge them strongly about the importance of good organisation habits for life  -otherwise the learning for him/her is that it’s ok to continue?
  10. The homework handed in from a mid attaining student who always gives you 5/10 effort. You accept ‘that’ll do for them’ and again, can’t be bothered with the aggro that will come if you challenge them over it, plus their parents are hard work, and the Head of House is on their case, so it’ll be alright in the end. Could you take the stance of handing the homework back to them and say quietly that you expect a marked improvement in the effort levels next time or their break times will be taken to achieve just that? 

All of these steps in bold are time consuming, all of them make us step out of our comfort zone, but vitally, force the students to as well. That one step may just be the one that gets that student to aim that little bit higher. If we all do one of these, imagine what that kid might achieve.

Thanks for reading.


Learning Points from @teacherhead Tom Sherrington’s Inset sessions at Backwell School

I just thought I’d share a quick summary of a few of the excellent points from

Tom Sherrington’s recent Inset sessions that I attended at Backwell School, North Somerset recently. It was a mostly reassuring day for me personally, as many of the ideas and strategies he discussed I was aware of, being a keen reader of edutwitter and the latest books on pedagogy. My department are definitely moving in the right direction I believe! However, many of these tips around embedding learning, a knowledge led curriculum, and strategic planning were delivered with humour, humility and fresh insights from Tom’s own personal experiences. They offered specific strategies for support, and Tom was happy to explore teachers’ questions. He was a really engaging speaker, and I would highly recommend him as a speaker who would offer a lot of thinking points for school CPD sessions. (A free book would be a lovely Xmas present, Tom -hint, hint!)

Learning Points from @teacherhead Tom Sherrington’s Inset sessions at Backwell School – Wed 29/11/17

  1. Major Focus on Task based Intervention work for under-performers rather than reflection work. What is the specific task to improve? Encouragement of a move away from self-reflection work: ‘I can do/know this’ to ‘here’s a task to SHOW me you can do/know this’ – Let’s test whether you know this. Tom offered the brilliant analogy here of an Abseiling instructor. They wouldn’t just say ‘All ok?’ with a group of beginners and let them go over the cliff! They’d double check key elements first until they are confident in the learners’ ability to go independent.

2. Questions were raised about the challenge and rigour of Yr 7-9. Are we leaving it too late if we only really push students in Yr 11? One school was cited as having 9-10 as the focus GCSE years, then going ‘beyond’ in Year 11.

Is our curriculum model coherent? Do years link together effectively?

  1. Embedding learning over time was also considered heavily.

Don’t mistake performing for learning. Information is only learned if students can do it in a week, a month, 6 months. Use strategies from the ‘Learning Scientists’ here. Elaboration, use in sentences, retrieval practice, etc.

Nothing wrong with rote learning at times. Higher ability problem solving is reliant on memory/ knowledge of an array of procedures and information to choose from. Plumber/Chess players analogies here. Both would not suddenly get all creative and try brand new ideas out. They would select the right course of action from their prior knowledge of many situations and experiences.


  1. Exam Practice is not necessarily the best way forward, although it was acknowledged that stamina for longer papers needs to be built as students get closer to the exams.

We looked at the ‘Learning Zone’ as opposed to the ‘Performance Zone’.

In the ‘Learning Zone’ students took their time over small components of exam skills; they would be set drills to practice; they were allowed to make mistakes, and learn from them, reflecting on improvement steps in a low stakes environment without grades.

This was preparation for the ‘Performance Zone’ where mistakes must be kept to a minimum, time management is crucial, and extended writing is encouraged.

The message was that LEARNING happened in the ‘Learning Zone’ not in the ‘Performance Zone’. Don’t over-play lots of broad, lengthy exam practices.

Some students in one school were told exactly what the Mock questions were, so they could prepare fully for them. They did well, earned confidence, and recognised that if they revise the main material, they’ll do well!

  1. Are we specific/explicit enough with our revision instructions on what to learn?

e.g. If this character comes up –what are the four main things you need to talk about?

  1. Major focus on increasing Challenge in classrooms

Are our expectations high enough of learners? Are we ‘lifting the lid’ on occasions and seeing what happens?

Are we all ‘hand on heart’ setting really tough work that our top attainers can struggle with from time to time?

Let’s challenge our top attainers through depth not speed.

Top end Modelling is vital.

Are we tolerating mono-syllabic answers out of gratitude or really probing students to extend the depth of their thinking?

We need to build strategies for ‘deep end survival’. Set super tough work, but make it clear that there is support there for them if they need it / they can use X resource if they need it. Don’t let them drown!

Eliminate soft filler activities – wordsearch / cover page / posters. There are students in our mixed ability classes who can sit A-levels now – what are we doing to stretch them?

Are we occasionally setting work that is ‘impossible to finish’? An example of a question set to a Yr 7 for homework was ‘What is the difference between Science and Philosophy?’

Are we the experts in the room? Do we take time in Faculty meetings and in our own time to build up deep subject knowledge?

There was an acknowledgement we differentiate for different people at different times, and can’t always focus on ‘lifting the lid’ for the top. But now and again it’s worth trying to see which students will surprise you by rising to the super-tough challenge level!

Thanks for reading, and well done to Tom for some excellent ideas.


Motivating Lower Attainers – Blog 3/3 -Via Secret Markers and other Audiences

My final post on Motivation was again inspired by Ron Berger and his inspirational book ‘An Ethic of Excellence’.

Berger examines the motivational factor of ensuring students’ work is shown to different audiences: other students, parents, local business people, and the community.

He asks the questions of students? Why should your work matter? Why should they care for your English lesson?


A student in Berger’s book says – ‘There is a reason to do the work well, and it’s not just because the teacher wants it that way. People cared…I didn’t want to let them down.’

The reality is we often feel prouder of something when others are there to witness/share what we’ve done.

This idea of experimenting with different audiences intrigued me, and whilst I can’t hope to compete with some of the amazing project work Berger speaks of where kids’ research alters things like council decisions(!) I thought there were things I could do to harness this powerful motivational factor.

So, this year I devised the idea of secret markers. I’m sure it has been used before but I hadn’t heard of anyone doing it, so it seemed pretty exciting! Basically, my Year 11s were allocated a student’s book from my Lower set Year 10s, and have once a fortnight, provided encouragement, and tips.



The Year 10s have loved it! They keep urging me to tell them who their ‘secret marker’ is (I won’t until the end of the year -the 11s are sworn to secrecy!) and have had some really sweet exchanges, not in the books I photographed tonight but saying stuff like – ‘Thank you, I appreciate it!’

This has had a direct impact on motivation levels. Here are some quotes from a recent survey:

·     ‘It’s good that others comment on our work’

·      ‘It made me want to try a lot harder’

·      ‘Make me think I’m not rubbish at English’

·      ‘Makes me feel more confident if there are good points’

Here are some other audiences I’ve used / planning to use:

The Headteacher. I told them he would be popping in to see what they had learned recently. Again this was a new experience for them (not the SLT walk which are regular and great(!), but the time to discuss the work of each member of the class). My class  spent half a lesson refining, and reflecting on what they would show him that they were proud of.  Chris Hildrew kindly spent 15 mins with us, talking to each of my students in turn, discussing their progress with them. Their pride and motivation levels grew.

I have used the audience of parents. They were asked to listen to their son/daughter discuss their learning around a particular area, and comment on it. This was fairly successful, but didn’t have full take up. More work in getting this right is needed.

I want to use their teacher from last year once or twice if they’ll let me!

I want to get an author to pass comment on the stories they do later in the year, and a business friend of mine with their non-fiction letters. I keep reminding them of the 200 quid I got from a complaint letter once!

It all just broadens the sense that the work they’re doing is not just for me!

On a whole school level, I’m excited to take Berger’s audiences idea even further. I’ve asked every Faculty to share a project in a year group where there are 2 or 3 drafts of a piece of work, and select a handful of students where the progress is significant. I’m going to then get those students together to make a display of the draft stages, and invite parents in to an ‘Exhibition of Progress’ evening at the school. I hope to invite other students along too, and build motivation and pride via this avenue where they discuss their successful learning steps. My remit would be different to Berger’s though, as I want to see progress, but not necessarily ‘excellence’. I want to choose students from all attainment ranges to share work in this way.

More on this to follow later in the year.

Thanks for reading!






Motivating Lower Attainers -Blog 2/3 -Via Pride

I started the year with my Yr 10 group with a series of questions around the idea of pride.  I wanted students to reflect on something they had achieved highly in, and what had got them to that point.

I was fully aware that English work was not likely to be cited top of their list when asked!

It was interesting to hear tales of dance competitions, football matches, computer game achievements and more.

Those of you who read Blog 1 will share my amusement (inner turmoil?) when I read the Skateboarding one!

We then discussed the critical nature of practice over time, overcoming obstacles, and hard work in getting to these points, and how there had been a starting point for us all, before making the link to the two years ahead of us and the hundreds of lessons and homework occasions we had to practice. EVERY lesson mattered was my message.

Imagine how far we can go in 200/300 lessons with the right motivation!

We talked about how that pride would need to transfer to our every day work. I ask them almost every lesson -‘Are you proud of this?’ , encouraging maximum effort and focus in class and homework tasks, and challenging them when that sense of pride is seen to be lacking. It can so easily drop off, and the weekly, sometimes daily resetting of high expectations is essential in my view. I continually remind them of other less significant, but nonetheless symptomatic indicators of pride: presentation, maintenance of notes and handwriting.

‘I want a classroom full of craftsmen. I want students whose work is strong and accurate and beautiful. Students who are proud of what they do, proud of how they respect both themselves and others’    –Ron Berger – An Ethic of Excellence

A lower set student’s book might, as happens on occasions, unfortunately look like this:



But rather than ignore this, we spent time at break with this one, sellotaping it, and fixing it. It’s the little things – but they need to know that when the pride drops, motivation disappears, and progress stagnates.

I encourage students to craft analysis/writing pieces, and have allocated more time than normal for students to improve existing work until they’re proud. This has been really powerful. We now have more lessons in KS4 and I am advocating Jamie Thom’s ‘Slow learning’ – taking time to not rush through modules but make sure we understand the steps we’ve taken, and are proud of what we’ve done.

I’ve sought to instill pride via phone calls home for strong effort levels. I’ve looked at their books twice this year purely to try and evaluate effort levels, and given a mark out of 10. Those with 7 or more got a positive call home and were celebrated openly in class. Those with less than 5 got a private reminder via a call home that pride levels needed to rise.

I’ve given mini-team talks that reject their perception that others in other groups are just ‘smart’ and get it. I emphasise in response that the only difference between the higher attainers and our group currently is practice and automaticity. We need to zoom in on words -every time. We need to be thoughtful with meaning and effect of quotes -every time. The top set are.

‘If you repeat the same thought demanding task again and again, it will become automatic, your brain will change so you can complete this part of the task without thinking about it’ Daniel T Willingham – ‘Why don’t Students like school?’

Our embedding learning agenda in the English department involves regular recapping of prior knowledge in starters and homework and I have emphasised the importance of this work. The driving a car analogy always works well here.

Building the sense of team pride is vital too – students will always be encouraged to talk confidently and with advanced vocabulary. They’re asked to help each other in improving their work to an acceptable standard. Breaking the negativity/silliness/culture of raised eyebrows at intelligent points, Berger argues is fundamental –

‘Everyone does this many drafts, everyone works hard here… Once these children enter a culture with a powerful ethic, that ethic becomes the norm… ‘ Berger -‘An Ethic of Excellence’

That’s what I’m striving for.

I still have comedians at the moment who would rather be witty, than give a detailed answer. You have to sometimes humor them for an instant (their social standing is vital to motivation -so let them get the laugh now and again) but then insist they extend, and have a quiet word about allowing 1 joke for 6 thoughtfully considered points in future!

I’ve engaged with them via questionnaires to learn more about what leads to pride and further focus on what they feel they’re good at, this time within English. There’s nothing majorly unusual with the most popular answers here.

  • What do I find tough in English? (Analysis)
  • What have I found I’m good at in English? (Analysis!)
  • What motivates me? (Get good grades / good job / make parents proud)

But I liked this one:

  • What reduces my motivation? (When I feel like I can’t do it / don’t understand /feel stupid)

This definitely links into my reading of Willingham.

‘We quickly evaluate how much mental work it will take to solve the problem. If it’s too much (or too little), we stop working on the problem’ 

– Disillusionment stemming from a sense of personal inadequacy returns, and misbehaviour inevitably results to offset this feeling of failure. We all see it regularly, don’t we?

Yes, we do have to set challenge, and teach to the top -of course we do, but we also have to be careful not to overload, and have to find regular opportunities, more than ever for lower attaining students, to succeed in the work which is a fundamental contributor to pride.

Success is covered in Blog 1!



Motivating lower attainers -Blog 1/3 -Via Success and the use of (sshh…) Grades

How do you motivate a lower set group?

My recent edu-reads have taken me on different journies towards possible solutions to this potentially game changing question. Since September I have been trialling some new strategies, and some old ones, and I’d like to share three if they can be of use to anyone over the course of these blogs.

What comes first? Motivation or Success?


For me, it’s motivation -just(!) but it must be quickly and frequently met with success in order to nurture future motivation. What are we doing to ensure students experience success on a regular basis, and why does it matter more for our lower attainers?

I once had a colleague who basically lied to his students about the grades he gave them. He fully admitted it -he would inflate grades by a half to 1 grade, and we all cursed him (in a nice way) when we had to moderate his coursework down at the end of the year.

His students though, were 100% motivated. They literally strutted round the school, speaking of the B+ grades they had got, above their performance in other subjects, brimming with pride because, and this is the crux, they had had a lifetime of failures otherwise in English lessons.

I don’t lie to my students, but I do find numerous opportunities to mention grades, and I’m not ashamed to admit it. Let me try and explain why.

Dweck, in her book ‘Mindset’ steers mostly clear of the low attainers in my view and it frustrates me, as I subscribe otherwise to the principles behind GMS. We hear of a few kids like the boy ‘You mean I don’t have to be dumb any more?’ and he starts to try, but generally most of the stories are of people who were already high achievers, but via the fixed mindset developed little interest in effort / had a fear of failure, and wanted to preserve that status. The point is though, for most of them, they had the foundation of hundreds of successes and often the added bonus of some natural genetic aptitude on the way up. We are talking about people who have/ developed a fixed mindset in something they are already pretty damn good at.

What about those young people who have had the crippling sense of relative failure to their peers throughout primary school and secondary school -literally hundreds of situations when an English activity has not gone well, and their confidence has been steadily, relentlessly diminished?

Couple this with the fact teenagers have the most incredibly fragile self-esteem; they are seeking out who they are -what makes up their personal identity, and it is obvious this is going to be linked to where their successes come.

Success = motivation / enjoyment = further success

I’ve given Growth Mindset presentations on resilience, talked about Steve Jobs and James Dyson who both experienced hundreds of failures on their way to the top. BUT what we don’t share in those assemblies is the fact Jobs was an electronics whizz at school, and was inspired/guided by his uncle; Dyson showed remarkable aptitude for engineering extremely quickly at University. For them, yes they were resilient, but there had been enough successes in the discipline to act as a safety net, a counter-balance for the short period of failures that followed.

My lower set 10s haven’t had that. They don’t have that bank of successes to offset the times they get things wrong, the times they perceive themselves to have failed.


It therefore follows that they must experience the pleasurable mental rush of success quickly, regularly, and sense that there is an achievable outcome for them equated with a commonly accepted measure of success or why should they bother?

The try hard / it’s all about your effort message is pointless otherwise.

The ‘Well done on that good punctuation use!‘ is nice and all, but probably worth 1 gramme on the scales above. Achieving a standard accepted by most as a measure of success amongst peers, must be worth a kilogram!

It is difficult enough for adults to overcome the incompetent experiences / paranoia of failure and continue to apply themselves to something -(like DIY if you’re me!), but with children, all the assemblies and posters in the world are not going to get through without tangible, relative success.

What do I mean by relative, tangible success?

When I was 11, I got into skateboarding. I enjoyed it -the buzz of going downhill fast, the clothes, the exciting places to hang-out. However, for the life of me, I couldn’t do an ‘ollie’! For those not familiar with skateboarding jargon, it’s a kind of kick-flip jump. Most of my mates could do it; I couldn’t. I tried many times, practicing on my own, sometimes with others, but I didn’t manage to master it.

This was a problem because being able to do an ollie was the relative standard. It equated to being a successful skateboarder -it was the first major trick. Most could ride like me; but anyone half decent could ollie. After a lack of success in this,  despite considerable hours practicing (honestly, I did!), the motivation and enjoyment for me disappeared, and I pursued other hobbies.



Young people are particularly good at sniffing out that standard of success relative to peers and subscribing to it. Why do we ignore this?

Success = motivation / enjoyment = further success

At KS4, the relative standard of success is a ‘C’ grade or a Level 4. It’s the access level to college, to a job, our national agreed standard for being functionally literate. Students know, their parents know, and I know that if they don’t get the ‘4’ then, much as it pains me to say, in most cases (Some EAL/serious SEN excepted) they’ve not done enough. It’s simply not good enough.

I know I’m in the minority here. It is highly fashionable in teaching lately to avoid talking grades, and to celebrate progress with ‘good punctuation‘ or ‘excellent sentence variety‘. But ultimately, regardless of our growth mindset dreams, they are not going to go home singing and dancing about that. Just like budding footballers wouldn’t celebrate getting a corner kick into the area -that’s an expectation of anyone who plays football; they’ll look for what relative success is depending on their peers around them – making the school team for example. It’s these ‘relative successes’ that motivate the students to firstly enjoy the pursuit and garner the motivation to practise more for greater future success.

Every student in my group (in fact the vast majority of students in most schools) can either get/get extremely close to a ‘4’ if they apply themselves. I talk about that as the benchmark with them, and that we should all be aiming for that or higher. We look at higher Level 6 or 7 models, and I talk regularly to them in terms of ‘what you’ve said right there in exploring the writer’s intention – is Level 7 quality.’ I will return work with feedback on, and have learned to hold back the grade until after reflection work has been done, but often then I will unashamedly share what I believe their grade to be. The students who have earned ‘4’s have been over the moon. Those who are not far off are disappointed, but it may be they have to tweak a few things for next time. I will try hard to find sections of their work that I can recognise as level 4 or above quality on another piece of work.

The student who got a Level 6 in our recent end of unit assessment I celebrated as a model of success and what can be achieved by them all. I’m not sure why I would want to  keep this quiet. He was beside himself with excitement -his hard work and focus had been rewarded and he had been successful. His peers who found out gave him a moving round of applause, and I thought he might shed a tear.

Motivation levels were good for him previously, but are now through the roof, as he went home to tell his parents that evening.

‘Once a student sees that he or she is capable of excellence, that student is never quite the same. There is a new self-image, a new notion of possibility. They’re never satisfied with less; they’re always hungry.’ -Berger -‘An Ethic of Excellence’

The lad predicted a ‘2’ at the end of Yr 10 with ‘slow processing skills’, earned a ‘4’ in a recent practice we did. I offered some scaffolding in previous lessons but then he did it – he was absolutely buzzing.

These experiences are a strong brick in the foundation for future resilience, for the kind of motivation levels needed to knuckle down on the Sunday night when his English homework is due, and his mates are playing X-box. Beforehand, I’m pretty certain it was a foregone conclusion which would win out.

Of course, I don’t give grades out all the time. I use many other tactics to motivate that are nothing to do with grades -some of which I’ll talk about in the other 2 blogs in this series,  some not – the quiet word, the parental call, the extra day’s deadline rather than a sanction, the tougher challenge than they’re used to, discussing the profound importance of being able to read and speak confidently, the engagement with their interests and them as people.

I use them all, but for me, ensuring they experience a tangible notion of ‘success’ quickly and regularly, often via grades, still has a major part to play in motivation.

Thanks for reading.


Embedding Learning over time – Our approach

There has been much written on this topic over the last year, and I am indebted to many members of Team English for their ideas. I’d also like to acknowledge Michaela School in shaping my thinking towards how we can simplify our delivery of core content. Below are some of the decisions we have taken as a team to get to where we are at present, just a couple of months in to the ‘new system’. It may be of use to Faculties who are considering moving into this area over the next year, and, as an aspiring Assistant Head, I’d like it to demonstrate evidence of a core Teaching and Learning approach that I believe in strongly and would look to work with middle leaders to implement across a school.

Following my reading of the following books,

I presented to my team the story of Student X (who happened to be an actual student (one of mine, in fact!)

Pic B

The overall message was she had got to 16 years old, about to sit her GCSE Language exam, without being able to write a story remotely competently. I felt, collectively, as a group of teachers, we had let her down in some way. How had she got to 16 years old without things like full stops and paragraphs being automatically embedded in long term memory? Of course, it is a simplistic picture -her attitude to learning (not bad), her attendance record (quite bad), and her SPLD will have contributed, but ultimately, I felt we could and should have done more. The full blog post is here

My message centred on how, for her, core English skills and knowledge had simply not become embedded and automatic, and we discussed as a team, how we might set about addressing this area. This is what led to the strategy for ‘Embedding Learning more effectively over time’.

After the team meeting, I met with my Key Stage Coordinators to discuss our guiding principles further, and the work involved in setting it up. Laura, Rachel  and Sue Strachan in particular have been absolutely amazing in helping turn the initially daunting plan into a reality, and have provided a huge amount of wisdom, ideas, caution, enthusiasm and time, all at important points along the road! Sue made two excellent points from the offset:

  1. Some of the methods people are using already so there is nothing for anyone to be worried about.
  2. Anything we implement should not lead to more work for the team

We all agreed that we were moving in the right direction with this, and that the sheer weight of research around how students learn best pointed to the fact we need to move more fully towards a ‘recap culture’.

The philosophy is sound:  Trim down and focus more on the essentials. Consistency of message. Practise it more. Make the core stuff automatic.

I knew in order to get ownership we needed to involve the team further in as much of the process as possible. We met in small groups before the summer in gained time to decide what might go into the first unit Knowledge Organizers, and to answer any initial queries.

Below is what we arrived at as key components for the new approach:

  1. Knowledge Organisers that identify the Core information that every student should know 

This is a large task, and the 3 coordinators and myself are constructing these every six weeks for the new unit. The rationale is simple: Establishing clarity of what constitutes the vital module knowledge/skills for students and teachers. It is a process being evaluated with the team before the KO is used, as they’re being used, and at the end of them being used. Decisions made so far:

  • No differentiation. The KO material should be challenging for most. High Attainers would be expected to go beyond the KO content.
  • KS3 and Yr 9 – 1 page.    KS4 – 2 pages.
  • We’ve not arrived at a ‘definitive’ set of categories yet. Terms and Defs, Vocab, Skills, Exam Requirements are recurring, but in our Anthology one we have a mini guide to the Romantics, and in our Yr 9 one -some punctuation reminders.
  • For each poem in the Anthology, we have identified an overview statement, 3 context points, and 4-5 quotes to be learned.
  • Definitions need to be useful to our subject and collectively agreed. e.g. we can probably refine the dictionary definition of ‘analysis’ for our ends. Some definitions are overly complex/unhelpful.
  • Quotes / Terms/Vocab must be explicitly taught in the lessons. If teachers do not see the use of something, a case is made and it comes out in the drafting stage. KOs must be the distilled knowledge of lessons, NOT a bolt-on with terms the teacher never uses in class.

    2. Identify a Quiz that can test KO learning easily, effectively and provide next steps for teachers/students 

Googleforms has been fantastic for us here. Sue researched this for us and has come up with a winner. Decisions made so far: We create a quiz that tests samples of different sections of the KO sheet.

  • Use Multiple choice questions. Don’t make them too easy.
  • We copy the quiz and send the link to each teacher for onward sending to their class.
  • The quiz takes 15 mins for students who do it in a computer room at the end for the module, following the main assessment.
  • The summary info gives the teacher an ‘at a glance’ guide to how each student did, the 2 worst score questions for the class, and a class percentage correct for each question.
  • TEACHER ACTION – The teacher can then use this info to re-teach any area where the majority of students didn’t get the right answers.
  • STUDENT ACTION -The teacher can also send the quiz results back to the student for them to re-learn areas as part of their next homework.
  • RE-QUIZ at later date in year as part of interleaved recap lesson (See Point 4)


3. Create a Quiz that uses a selection of information from KOs during the year to assess overall knowledge acquired.

We hope to use Googleforms again to get a sense of how successful we have been in helping students retain information over the course of the year. We plan to have one of these midway through Year 11. Action steps will be taken from these results -TBC.

4. Create Year Overviews that interleave recap lessons from older units and previous years.


You’ll see here that our first Yr 7 Unit -‘The Novel’ has the skills and knowledge revisited in a lesson in Yr 7 Module 2, Year 7 Module 4, and Year 8 Module 4 with increasing gaps. This is characteristic of our approach across all years. One lesson alone won’t ‘bring it all back’, but together with the other steps in place, it certainly helps refresh and remind.

5. KS4 Revision Weeks

Self explanatory. We have expanded here and built in a revision week before Xmas in Year 10, a revision fortnight in April of Year 10, a revision week just after Xmas in Year 11, and 5 weeks at the end of Year 11.

6. The use of starters to recap prior learning and accompanying activities based on knowledge of how students learn effectively -via low stakes quizzes, mcq, first letter recall, clues. 

I am convinced that the most effective plenary is the one that comes at the start of the next lesson, and we are using all starters in all years to recap core current module KO information in the form of a short quiz/activity. This starter may also be used to provide a short separate recap on a previous unit -particularly useful at KS4.

Here are some methods of challenging students in this way: MCQ, first letter recall prompts, quotes with missing words. Whilst open tasks such as a character mind-map can be useful, generally, closed questions on anything from exam timings to which characters link best to a key theme, will work best in the limited time you have for starters, to clarify for the students vital info you want to embed in their long term memories.

7. The use of homework to focus almost exclusively on KO learning and Target Work

Homework now increasingly offers students time/opportunities to learn sections of their KO. This is vital consolidation work to go alongside extended writing or reading practice. DIRT time can now be extended into homework usefully to further give students chance to reflect on and act on teacher feedback.

8. The use of fortnightly KO-Pause lessons to recap understanding of current unit, take time out to reflect, and make explicit links to other units. 

Every fortnight in KS4, we are recommending teachers take a lesson to ‘pause’ and go over key learning points from the last 8 lessons, checking students’ understanding of KO skills/knowledge, and offering chance for all to reflect on the steps they have taken so far. Current feedback is that half a lesson is probably enough for this, with all the other embedding learning steps going on, otherwise content will be squeezed too much.

Some teachers are starting to use this time to make the links between exam components explicit e.g. how the same skills are used in Unseen Poetry and Romeo and Juliet extract analysis. Sue has even gone as far as to use a Romeo and Juliet scene to test Language Fiction Reading skills via qns!

9. Modelling and Practice opportunities

The explicit use of  a variety of models has been an essential component in our department for years and  we are looking to up the emphasis on this even more with an increasing number of the team now trialling live modelling with their classes, and helping students understand the  steps towards success.  Being more unashamed about creating periods of silent time for students to produce extended writing and practising these steps on a regular basis is also part of how we hope to embed learning over time.

10. Metacognition work and extended DIRT/Target work time.

I have blogged on how highly I rate this in my post around targets work here, and Sue has also produced an excellent guide here.Metacognitive Activities Lesson Ideas & Approaches

11. Create consistency of teaching messages to students

We have moved away from PEA and teachers’ various sub-strands of this in recent years, and Sue and I have worked hard alongside the team to refine a system of 8 tiered prompts that fit our purposes better, and don’t tie down students to the old PEA approach that could prove limiting. The message for all is during the course of your analysis, red is always essential, while you should show off the orange and green skills now and again, where appropriate. Not everything, every time!  I am keen for succinctness, a move away from techniques waffling, and instead embracing ways to cover a sufficient quantity of quotes in the given time.

If we use the same messages over time, this will help embed them in students’ long term memories. IMG_8056

It’s only early days, and we may not see the full impact of these steps until Yr 7 and 8 reach Year 11, but the early signs are that the students are responding well, recalling things more quickly, and actually finding some of our recap activities ‘fun’ -Now there’s a dirty word to end on.

Thanks for reading.